Immunohistochemical study of experimental malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits. – PubMed

Gels were then extensively rinsed in distilled water for 30 min and incubated in 0.02% thiosulfate sodium solution for 1 min. The genes included the orthologs of VZV ORF28, ORF29, ORF30, ORF31, ORF40, and ORF42. Cells were mounted with Fluoromount-G (Southern Biotechnology Associates 0100-01). For larger viral genomes, the statistical models initially defined by the heuristic procedure could be iteratively refined further by the unsupervised training procedure implemented in GeneMarkS (24). Polyclonal antibody-based assays, including ELISA, IFA, and IPT among others, detect antibodies against multiple epitopes of AlHV-1. At 6 hpi, the cells were washed twice with PBS, and the medium was replaced by serum-free DMEM until the extracellular medium was harvested at either 24 hpi (HeLa) or 16 hpi (BHK). Parameters of both models were determined from the multiple alignment of the nucleotide sequences situated upstream of the predicted gene starts, with the alignment constructed by the Gibbs Motif Sampler (25).

As suggested by the manufacturer, the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit containing a special buffer (AVL) was used to extract the DNA of total urine and the supernatant. Vet Microbiol. AFIP Diagnosis: Meninges; cerebrum: Vasculitis and perivasculitis, lymphohistiocytic, necrotizing, subacute, severe, Jersey, bovine. The bootstrap values were calculated with the modules SEQBOOT, DNADIST, NEIGHBOUR and CONSENSE of the PHYLIP Ver. Phylogenetic Reconstruction The phylogenetic reconstruction is done based upon core gene set of 64 members of Herpesviridae family. A. The concentrate allocation for the H-F calves was increased to 2 kg/day following gradual weaning.

The latter carries an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette under control of the human cytomegalovirus IE gene promoter/enhancer (37). Purified AlHV-1 C500 DNA was used as a control in PCR and sequencing analyses. To collect these samples field teams followed calving wildebeest waiting for the placenta to be expelled. Moreover, bioluminescent imaging of organs explanted from rabbits infected with a recombinant AlHV-1 strain expressing a luciferase reporter protein demonstrated that viral infection was widely distributed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs such as liver, kidney and lung [38]. 4B). To minimize suffering, the severity of MCF was not to exceed moderate (in the progression mild to moderate to severe) as determined by a clinical scoring system (Russell et al., 2012). The phenotype of these rare infected cells was not established.

Next, we evaluated whether replacement of the AlHV-1 ORF8 gene by the OvHV-2 homolog affects virus growth in FMSKhTERT.1 cells. AlHV-1 C500 virulent and attenuated strains were propagated on BT cells cultured in Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium supplemented with 2% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum and 2 mM glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. SA-MCF is a particular problem in North America where bison are highly susceptible to infection (Berezowski et al., 2005). The detection of virus in the tissues has been difficult, probably because of the low copy number of virus DNA in infected cells. OvHV-2 gB stimulates neutralizing antibodies capable of blocking OvHV-2 entry (9), and therefore, it was chosen as a target in this study. AlHV-1 ORF65, the minor capsid protein gene, was amplified with a PCR assay from the viral genomic DNA and cloned in frame with a histidine tag in a bacterial expression vector, pCOLD I. Previous subclinical infection did not appear to reduce susceptibility to MCF following intranasal challenge.

The results suggest that attenuation of AlHV-1 is not the result of gross changes in the composition of the virus particle but probably due to altered viral gene expression in the infected cell. Other MCFVs known to cause disease include caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2), which is endemic in goats [6,7], an MCFV of unknown origin causing disease in white-tailed deer (MCFV-WTD) [8,9], ibex MCFV (MCFV-ibex) carried by ibex [10], and an AlHV-2-like virus carried by Jackson hartebeest [11]. Clinical signs in hamsters most closely resembled those described for naturally occurring MCF. The present study describes investigations into the presence of OvHV-2 DNA in blood leukocytes using PCR and the detection of serum antibodies reactive to the virus by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using sera of cattle, swine, sheep, and goats from farms on which outbreaks of MCF had occurred during the preceding 5 years. The severity of lymphoproliferative disease associated with malignant catarrhal fever was extremely variable among 25 animals at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Data from Switzerland concern mainly dairy cattle. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page.

Abstract Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. Access to the complete full text This is a short preview of the document. Barnard, B. The repertoire of proteins that comprise intact gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogen Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is likely to have critical functions not only in viral structure and assembly but also in the early stages of infection and evasion of the host’s rapidly deployed antiviral defenses.