Pediatric Echovirus Workup: Laboratory Studies

[Medline]. [Medline]. Common bacterial causes in this age group include Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus). [Medline]. All children who had received antibiotics prior to CSF examination were excluded from the study. After your child goes home, further tests may be needed to ensure their health. [Medline].

Differences in frequencies of findings between groups were analyzed by Fischer’s exact test. Wash hands often if you live with an infected person. The search terms used were as follows: “dengue AND (rule OR score)”. Other nonspecific symptoms may include arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, weakness, and lethargy and hypotonia. Following the success of conjugate vaccines against Hib, similar vaccines have now been developed against serogroup C meningococcal infection and against the major serotypes of S pneumoniae. [Medline]. Pathophysiology.

[Medline]. [Medline]. All clinical data were collected from questionnaires completed by a specialist physician and with the consent of the patients and/or their parents. Antona D, Leveque N, Chomel JJ, Dubrou S, Levy-Bruhl D, Lina B. PE is defined as respiratory distress with tachycardia, tachypnea, rales, and frothy sputum that developed after ANS dysregulation, together with a chest radiograph that showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates without cardiomegaly. In the sample with the highest viral RNA concentration no leftover impeded typing. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) following the Helsinki Declaration; and written informed consents were obtained from all mothers of participating infants.

Cultures were examined at 3 and 5 days postinoculation, and the endpoint was the highest dilution of a serum sample that completely inhibited cytopathic effect, in comparison with control wells that contained no serum samples. Analyses were performed using with SPSS 11.5 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Detection of EV, JEV, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus was performed using Geno-Sen’s Rotor Gene quantitative real-time PCR kit (Genome Diagnostics, India), which is specific for each virus in a Rotor-Gene 6000 real-time instrument (Corbett Research, Victoria, Australia) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. In Kansas City, most children had chest radiographs typical of lower respiratory viral infection showing perihilar infiltrates, hyperinflation, atelectasis but without lobar consolidation. Despite the low incidence of dengue in hospitalized children in the present study (1%), the child with dengue type-2 encephalitis died. Enterovirus C members include Coxsackievirus A1 (CV-A1), CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, CV-A19, CV-A20, CV-A21, CV-A22, CV-A24, EV-C95, EV-C96, EV-C99, EV-C102, EV-C104, EV-C105, EV-C109, EV-C113, EV-C116, EV-C117, EV-C118 and Polioviruses (PV1-3) (Adams et al. Detailed demographic and clinical data, including routine blood and CSF hematology and chemistry laboratory investigations, were collected on case record forms at enrollment and during follow-up.

Clinical outcomes were defined as death, full recovery, and severe, moderate or minor neurological sequelae, defined based on neurological examination, degree of independent functioning and controllability of seizures. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has introduced a more sensitive method of detecting intracranial infection, especially viral meningitis. 2011; Khetsuriani et al. [Medline]. A., Norris, J. In rare instances, such as West Nile virus (WNV) meningoencephalitis or cytomegalovirus (CMV) radiculomyelitis, polymorphonuclear cells rather than lymphocytes may be the predominant cell type, and this may provide a diagnostic clue. One hundred seven (50%) of 216 subjects with identified cases of pertussis completed questionnaires and had medical records reviewed to ascertain the costs of illness, including physician office visits, laboratory tests, medications, hospitalization, emergency department visits, additional child care, and lost days from school (children) or from work (parents or adult cases).

The virus gained notoriety in August 2014 when it was discovered that it had caused numerous cases of severe respiratory illness in children including several deaths. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection among young children in a cardiac intensive care unit: a single institution experience. Neurologic sequelae were observed in 0.7% of the patients. All Rights Reserved. Enteroviruses often cause what is known as the “summer flu.” They can also cause a rash known as hand, foot, and mouth disease. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using CLSI guidelines. Of interest, the neonate in the above Japanese study, whose neurologic exam had returned to normal one week after the onset of convulsions and the acute phase of enterovirus 71 meningoencephalitis, had repeated EEGs revealing no abnormalities.

NOTE: Enterovirus D68: This fall season, an enterovirus that causes primarily respiratory symptoms has been seen in various regions of the country. 7, 2002 and CDC, MMWR, Vol. Hand-foot-mouth disease, a rash that involves those areas of the body, is a common enteroviral infection that occurs in children. Hand-foot-mouth disease, a rash that involves those areas of the body, is a common enteroviral infection that occurs in children. New diagnostics (PCR) and antiviral therapy make insight in incidence of viral infections possible and warranted. Three neurologic syndromes identified were aseptic meningitis (3 patients {7%}), acute flaccid paralysis (4 {10%}), and brain-stem encephalitis or rhombencephalitis (37 {90%}). She was a full term baby with no neonatal problems.