Thy, J. Med. Both were more closely related to the previously described EEHV1 and EEHV2 viruses than to any other known herpesviruses. The numerical U numbering system used for EEHV gene nomenclature throughout this paper matches that for the equivalent orthologous genes from HHV6 and HHV7 (29–31) as well as that used by Ehlers (8). If the condition does not improve in one or two days quickly consult a veterinarian for help. Furthermore, the intact U71 and partial U72 ORFs obtained for EEHV3 and EEHV4 differ from each other here by 26% and 14% at the DNA level and by 29% and 13% at the amino acid level. Most importantly, the very wide range of genetic diversity observed among these nine Indian EEHV1 cases is not compatible with an earlier model suggesting that this disease resulted from cross-species transmission of EEHV1 from African to Asian elephants.
The missing genes in EEHV4(Baylor) relative to EEHV1(Kimba) include, in addition to the entire 10.5-kb 10-gene block from E47 to E55, those designated E2, E5A, E7A, E8, E10, E16A/B, E17, E18A, E18B, E24, E25, E31, E36A (vCXCL1), E38 (ORF-P), and E39 (ORF-Q). Pathol. Allometric scaling of pharmacokinetic variables is of interest to zoological veterinarians because elephants and other large animals are at the high end of the body weight scale, and this method can provide an estimate for designing therapeutic regimens when species-specific pharmacokinetic information is not available. Myocarditis and necrosis of myocytes were the most striking findings on histopathological examination. A future study will determine if oral administration will provide a more efficient mode of drug delivery and absorption in African elephants. Out of 27 artificial-insemination pregnancies since 1999, documents show that eight resulted in miscarriages or stillborn deaths and an additional six calves died from disease, including from the herpes virus (The Seattle Times). NASA recently asked the public for suggestions on how to better deal with poop in spacesuits.
A similar procedure was conducted with another pTrcHis2A vector encoding a 27 kD irrelevant 6His-tagged protein that was used as a negative control. Ling and his team sound the alarm when the viral loads exceed a certain baseline. The EEHV6 qPCR amplicon was designed using the DNA polymerase/U38 nucleotide sequence (EEHV6 NAP35 GenBank accession number JF692762). Publication of the Gajah, the Journal of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group Gajah is the Journal of the IUCN/Asian Elephant Specialist Group. Here was an opportunity to shift his focus to an urgent, heart-wrenching problem. Though EEHV often remains dormant, the disease that can develop is often fatal and is the cause of about half of the deaths of young elephants in zoos. Waters.
maximus), which was instead found to originate from an elephant of the Loxodonta genus. With the PCR machine, they can be tested as many times as needed, including multiple tests in one day. These reagents were used to determine whether Asian elephants produce these immunoglobulin isotypes in blood and milk and to assess antibody responses following booster vaccination with tetanus toxoid or to detect anti-EEHV antibodies to a putative EEHV glycoprotein. in reproductive physiology from the University of Missouri Columbia. Louis Zoo is irresponsible to breed elephants knowing the virus is present in the herd. The elephants spent 30 days at the San Diego Zoo before arriving May 13 in Oklahoma City. Interestingly, elephants in the wild have been known to seek out their own remedies to deal with illness.
Barack was pulled from the show after his second diagnosis, and Ringling has not spoken publicly of his fate since then. Of 15 sera tested four displayed low neutralizing antibody titers to BHV2. She took her final dose of medicine Saturday after about 10 days of elevated virus levels, which are now on the decline. Others have had working relationships with the zoo, as has at least one senior member of Cocker Fennessy, the public policy/PR firm that has facilitated the task force’s operations, produced its website and fielded the experts it’s heard from. Complete blood cell count, fibrinogen, and biochemistry panel obtained at day 3 and day 5 of illness was normal based on International Species Information System (ISIS, 2002, Eagan, MN) values and in-house data for this animal and concurrently housed conspecifics. Zoo officials picked Oklahoma City because it was among a handful of zoos with active breeding programs for elephants. 1, pp.
Collections director Mike Jordan said: “We’re absolutely devastated by the news. Please follow the link below if you would like to make a separate donation. We are trying to understand the relation between the three parameters, pathogen (virus), host (elephants) and environment (climate), and what is the causative trigger,” he said. This work is to be used in the development of evidence-based elephant management and welfare recommendations and highlights priority areas for further research. This human-wildlife conflict has a BIG threat on the species as villagers are often pushed to take action against the elephants.